Do you feel like you are constantly nagging your child to pay attention? Or do you find yourself saying “Sweetie, let’s focus!” every afternoon over homework? Are the students in your classroom distracted, lacking concentration, or tuned out? Using attention activities to help kids pay attention may be just the thing to help with kids who have a lot on their mind in the classroom or at home. These are activities to improve attention and concentration and can be a big help at home or at school.
Distractions can come in many forms. The child who is overly sensitive to sensory input may over respond to the slightest sounds, textures, sights, scents, tastes, or motions. Children who are excessively distracted by their sensory needs will struggle to attend to simple commands. Other children are able to “keep it together” in a classroom or home setting yet their concentration is challenged.
This resource is part of our new Executive Functioning Skills series. You will find information, executive functioning skill areas, strategies, and tools added to the drop down menu above.
Recognizing a connection between sensory processing and attention can be a key focus point. Our free attention and sensory workbook can help.
Improve Focus and Concentration
Limitations in cognitive abilities can impact all aspects of occupations in school, home, the community. Learning and daily activities provide opportunities for cognitive development, including attention, memory, problem solving. Additionally, concepts that children need for math and reading require attention and focus, including the ability to concentrate and attend to reading, counting and patterns in play are necessary for math concepts and early literacy skills.
In fact, there are a few key early literacy skills that are important building blocks:
- Alphabet Knowledge: Knowing letter forms along with their names and sounds
- Phonological Awareness: Discriminating and manipulating the sounds associated with spoken language
- Rapid Automatic Naming: Rapidly naming sequences of letters, numbers, colors, or objects
- Writing: Writing letters on request & name writing
- Phonological Memory: Remembering orally presented information for a short length of time
Occupational therapists have the skills to work with the educational team to address specific needs in the classroom related to literacy skill development. They can do this through multi-sensory approaches, while addressing any accommodations, and in meaningful and motivating means, all while supporting specific goals. A quick search found evidence-based interventions that can be used to promote pre-literacy skills in early childhood.
Some of these strategies include: facilitating the development of motor skills, sensory processing, postural control, and social interactions, as well as facilitating the development of alphabetic principle (specific letters correspond to specific letter sounds), phonological awareness (ability to discriminate and manipulate the sound structure), and phonemic awareness (understanding of a sound, like the initial sound of a word) into interventions. This can be included by incorporating multi-sensory approaches to formation of alphabet letters, use of finger plays, songs, and pre-writing tasks during interventions to promote the development of literacy skills (Frolek Clark, et al., 2011).
Inattentive Behaviors in kids
Understanding that attention and executive functioning skills are connected can be a helpful starting point in addressing the areas that play into a child’s inattentiveness. In fact what adds to a child’s inattentive behavior can be a variety of needs, from sensory processing components to executive functioning issues.
Addressing areas such as impulse control, problem solving, distractibility, self-regulation, and delayed gratification can be tools to address habits and mindset behind inattentive types of behaviors.
Types of Attention
There are various types of attention that kids can struggle with, each impacting function and independence in occupations of daily life for children in different ways. Mastering these types of attention are necessary for learning, safety, social skills, and function.
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Holding attention over a period of time is necessary for the focus and concentration needed in learning, listening during lectures, paying attention during conversations or instructions. Reading a book requires the ability to pay attention over a period of time without becoming distracted. As reading requirements become more advanced in the older grades, sustained attention is challenged by chapter books and reading comprehension.
Activities to Improve Sustained Attention-
- Word search- cross out all letter a’s, etc.
- Write out a list of words that start with a certain letter. Identify a certain number of words.
- Ordering information into alphabetical or numerical order
- Set a timer and complete a task or reading passage for a certain number of minutes
By nature, we are able to select the input we pay attention to. Consciously, and unconsciously, we are able to select the input which is most important. This is visible by the student who listens to their teacher during a lesson while a lawn mower is running outside the classroom window. Anyone familiar with a classroom can imagine all of the stimuli which is thrown at a child at any given time: a fly on the window, the first snowflakes of the season falling outside, a flickering fluorescent light, a fellow classmate with a bad cough, a janitor cart passing by in the hallway, a student’s pencil that drops, a tapping of a shoe, a rumbling belly waiting for lunch…there is a lot going on which challenges selective attention! Having the ability to select from the many points of visual, auditory, interoceptive, tactile, stimuli in order to focus and attend to just one, is the brain’s ability to select and respond to just one factors that matter most.
Activities to Improve Selective Attention-
- Use visual cues
- Work on auditory skills
- Limit visual distractions
- Reduce background noise
- Position kids away from windows or hallways in the classroom
- The Focus Game
This type of attention refers to the ability to switch or immediately transfer focus from one activity to another. Switching points of concentration is needed to make sudden switches in alternating attention in tasks which require different cognitive skills. One example of this is cooking a meal and performing various tasks at once (boiling water, chopping carrots, and helping kids with homework is just one example. As a side note, it seems like teachers and parents excell in alternating attention 🙂 Alternating attention requires the ability to use the other attention types in tasks.
Activities to Improve Alternating Attention-
- Cooking with kids activities
- Musical chairs
- Eye Found It Game
- Flip cards in a deck and perform actions based on the suit, color, or number
- Sort coins or colored items
- Practice performing a task that can easily become distractible such as going online to send an email…or shopping in Target 🙂
- The Sneaky, Snacky, Squirrel game
Divided attention refers to one’s ability to focus on two or more things at the same time. Simultaneously concentrating on various factors is evidenced by driving and holding a conversation simultaneously. This ability to multi-task isn’t always an easy thing to manage. The ability to hold attention to various simultaneous point of concentration can require practice. A teen who is learning to drive will need the radio turned off and the only conversation in the car being verbal instructions from a parent or driving instructor. Only through practice does that new driver learn to concentrate on the road while the radio is playing.
Activities to improve divided attention-
- Practice games such as Connect Four with background distractions or verbal instructions
- Increasingly complex verbal memory games
- Simon with music playing in background
Use the activities and strategies below to build attention skills or accommodate for struggles with attention so that children can become safe and active learners in all environments.
For classroom strategies, try adding a few attention-boosting classroom breaks, depending on the needs of the students you serve.
Attention Activities for kids
More strategies to improve attention
The Impulse Control Journal is your ticket to helping kids manage their impulses, strategize ways to “shift gears”, and learn valuable lessons in self-regulation.
The Impulse Control Journal is a self-regulation tool that will help:
- Children who have boundary issues
- Kids learning about self-control or who struggle with carryover of skills learned during one-on-one therapy sessions
- Kids with impulse control challenges that lead to safety concerns or learning issues
This printable journal has tools to address attention at all levels:
- Drawing Journal Pages to reflect and pinpoint individual strategies
- Journal Lists so kids can write quick checklists regarding strengths, qualities, supports, areas of need, and insights
- Journaling worksheets to pinpoint coping skills, feelings, emotions, and strategies that work for the individual
- Daily and Weekly tracking sheets for keeping track of tasks and goals
- Mindset, Vision, and Habit pages for helping kids make an impact
- Self-evaluation sheets to self-reflect and identify when inhibition is hard and what choices look like
- Daily tracker pages so your child can keep track of their day
- Task lists to monitor chores and daily tasks so it gets done everyday
- Journal pages to help improve new habits
- Charts and guides for monitoring impulse control so your child can improve their self-confidence
- Strategy journal pages to help kids use self-reflection and self-regulation so they can succeed at home and in the classroom
- Goal sheets for setting goals and working to meet those goals while improving persistence
- Tools for improving mindset to help kids create a set of coping strategies that work for their needs
Get your copy of the Impulse Control Journal to address attention and other underlying areas.
Frolek Clark, G. G., Schlabach, T. L., Barnett, M. E., Carr, M. A., Hinkle, B. L., Kluever, J. L., … Kluever, A. L. (2011, August). American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc. Retrieved from www.aota.org