This post describes visual efficiency, including visual problems such as convergence insufficiency or other visual processing issues impacting functional tasks. These visual processing problems may present in ways that are not obvious but do lead to trouble with reading and learning. As a related resource, check out our blog post on types of eye specialists and specifically, behavioral optometrists.
A child struggles with handwriting. They work hard in school and can verbalize answers to spelling tests or spout off vocabulary meanings and math facts. But when it comes to reading assignments, creative writing tasks, or writing a list of words on a spelling test, you notice it.
This child seems distracted in the classroom. They resist homework. In-class assignments are not completed on time and when he needs to silently read a passage and recall the details, he seems distrait.
Sometimes, these learning problems are an indication of a vision problem. Sometimes, the child is not complaining of trouble seeing and they have passed vision tests, yet there might be a hidden vision problem.
Visual processing and visual efficiency are hidden eye problems that might not seem obvious when a child goes about his day. A child who needs glasses for acuity will squint his eyes of complain about headaches or blurry words on the page. A child with visual processing or visual efficiency difficulties may slip through the fuzzy visual cracks.
Visual perceptual skills are needed for so many functional skills. You’ll find easy and fun ways to work on visual perceptual skills through play here.
What is Visual Efficiency
Lets start by discussing the differences between visual processing and visual efficiency.
Visual processing is a large way to describe many visual skills. When a child has a problems with visual processing, they have difficulty taking in information and processing that visual information in order to make sense of it.
Visual processing includes visual tasks such as laterality, directionality, form perception, visual memory, visual closure, and visual motor integration. These are the kids who have trouble with letter reversals, difficulty learning the letters of the alphabet, has poor comprehension skills, has poor recall of visual information, has trouble with writing spelling words and vocabulary, or has sloppy handwriting.
Visual scanning can be one of these processing skills impacting the retrieval of visual information.
Taking in and processing that information can include visual efficiency.
Visual efficiency refers to the ability to effectively view visual information. While visual efficiency refers to nearsightedness and farsightedness, it also includes problems with how the eyes move in order to focus on visual information:
- Visual focusing
- Visual tracking
- Visual tracking
- Eye teaming
- Convergence insufficiency
Visual efficiency problems may present as squinting, complaints of blurred vision, inattention, looses place when reading, poor reading comprehension, moving head when reading, or skipping lines when reading.
You can see how the ability to effectively track, focus, use the eyes together, and converge on information plays a huge role in processing that information for perceptual information so it can be used functionally, in conjunction with motor tasks (visual motor skills).
- Read more about convergence insufficiency here.
- Here is information on how convergence insufficiency impacts reading.
- Here are activities to improve convergence insufficiency.
These are the types of problem areas that often times present later in the elementary school years or when students are required to read a significant amount of information.
What to do about vision problems
If a child is suspected of having problems in these areas, it is important to have them tested by an optometrist who is qualified to treat learning related vision problems. Kids can overcome problems with visual processing and visual efficiency through help, tutoring, adaptations, modifications, and corrected vision problems.
Here is more information about strategies to address visual perceptual skills and handwriting.
Visual Efficiency Activities
Because the visual processing skills are so closely related (taking in information, visual perception, visual efficiency, and visual motor skills), activities are often combining all of these areas, and involve functional tasks as well.
Play is a favorite occupation of kids, so many of these activities incorporate play as a therapeutic activity to develop visual efficiency and visual processing skills.
Visual Motor Integration Bilateral Coordination Activity
Eye-hand coordination activity with letters
DIY Lacing Cards for Bilateral Coordination
Visual Closure Bug Worksheets
Scooping Eye-Hand Coordination Activity
Practice “b” and “d” with sensory writing
Color shape discrimination Sort
You will find MANY more visual processing activities on our Visual Processing Page.
Here are some fun ways to help with visual efficiency concerns:
- Simple Visual Tracking Tool
- Tips and tools for Visual Tracking
- 6 Ways to Improve Visual Tracking with Cardboard Tubes
- Visual Discrimination
- Visual Scanning Activities
- What is Visual Memory
These Visual Processing and Visual Efficiency tools are perfect for building skills that are needed in reading, writing, and learning tasks:
Colleen Beck, OTR/L has been an occupational therapist since 2000, working in school-based, hand therapy, outpatient peds, EI, and SNF. Colleen created The OT Toolbox to inspire therapists, teachers, and parents with easy and fun tools to help children thrive. Read her story about going from an OT making $3/hour (after paying for kids’ childcare) to a full-time OT resource creator for millions of readers. Want to collaborate? Send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org.